The two agreed that it would be necessary to invite the Soviets as the other major allied power. Marshall's speech had explicitly included an invitation to the Soviets, feeling that excluding them would have been a sign of distrust. State Department officials, however, knew that Stalin would almost certainly not participate and that any plan that would send large amounts of aid to the Soviets was unlikely to get Congressional approval. The Soviet Union was invited with the understanding that it would likely refuse.
Bush and Senator John Kerry both agreed that the most serious danger facing the United States is the possibility that terrorists could obtain a nuclear bomb.
The main barrier is acquiring highly enriched uranium. Assistant Secretary of Defense during the Clinton administration, wrote that "on the current path, a nuclear terrorist attack on America in the decade ahead is more likely than not.
In this scenario, a terrorist cell creates a nuclear device using highly enriched uranium HEU using nuclear device components that are smuggled into the United States. The kiloton nuclear device would most likely be assembled near a large U. Using a van or SUV, the device could easily be delivered to the heart of a city and detonated.
The effects and response planning from a nuclear blast are determined using statics from Washington, the most likely target. An estimated 5, casualties would be killed within.
Estimates could climb to as much asafter 24 hours.
Buildings within three miles are severely damaged. The contaminated area would be roughly 3, square miles depending on environmental factors such as weather and terrain. An electromagnetic pulse EMP damages much of electronic devices, power grids and communication systems in the surrounding area.
This warhead had a number of different yield options e. The intense heat of a nuclear explosion would produce fires throughout the immediate blast zone. Damaged buildings, downed power and phone lines, broken gas lines and water mains, and weakened bridges and tunnels are hazardous conditions that will need to be assessed depending on the type of industries present.
For example, chemical or petroleum production, industrial storage facilities, and manufacturing operations could cause significant releases of hazardous materials. Environmental considerations such as nearby bodies of water, prevailing winds and the general type of terrain have to be considered for an emergency response and evacuation.
An explosion in a large city would result in an estimatedtodisplaced persons flooding into nearby states. Furthermore, the electronic magnetic pulse EMPa high-voltage spike that radiates out from the detonation site, can disrupt the communication networks and electronic equipment within a 3-mile range from a kiloton ground blast.
The electrical power grid is likely to be damaged by the destruction of substations, power production facilities and distribution installations.
The grid damage may cause power outages over wide areas and over several states. These outages should be repaired within several days to a couple of weeks. Communication systems would suffer similar damage and will likely be repaired within similar time frames.
There will likely be significant damage to general public support infrastructures.
These systems include transportation such as air, water, rail, highway, power generation and distribution facilities and food and fuel distribution points. There will be safety concerns about the reliability of many structures like dams, levees, nuclear power plants, hazardous material storage facilities and still standing tall buildings all of which could become additional hazards.
Structures may be damaged that are used to provide essential services such as hospitals, schools, police and fire departments. The detonation would produce intense heat that will cause burns to exposed skin and eyes.
There are two general categories of nuclear radiation produced in a detonation. First, is the prompt nuclear radiation that is created from the initial explosion.
This radiation may expose unprotected people to large gamma ray or neutron doses. Radioactive fallout in the form of a large dust cloud would begin within two hours after the explosion and would dissipate within minutes to weeks.
The radiation from the fallout could contaminate an area for many years. The largest radiation concerns following an incident will be the radioactive material deposited on the ground, as people are evacuated from the fallout areas.
These effects are likely to have significantly larger impacts on the population than internal doses. Internal doses tend to expose the body to relatively small radiation doses over a long period of time, which produces different effects than large radiation doses received during a short period of time.
As the distance from ground zero increases to twelve miles, injuries due to radiation exposure will decrease, and lower level contamination, evacuation, and sheltering issues will become the major concern and distances greater than miles from ground zero of a nuclear detonation, acute health concerns will not become a significant issue.
The number of these cancers will likely run into the thousands and cause a large social and financial cost. Historically, decontamination of sites involves the removal of all affected material, so most buildings in the immediate downwind fallout path will likely have to be destroyed in the decontamination effort.
As the distance from the detonation site increases, the contamination level will decrease but buildings that have not been destroyed will require decontamination and will take years at a high financial cost at times becoming more expensive than the building itself.South Africa has two nuclear reactors generating 5% of its electricity at Koeberg.
South African government commitment to the future of nuclear energy is strong, but financial constraints apply. Construction of a demonstration Pebble Bed Modular Reactor in South Africa has been delayed. National Response Scenario Number One is the United States federal government's planned response to a nuclear attack.
It is one of the National Response Scenarios developed by the United States Department of Homeland Security, considered the most likely of fifteen emergency scenarios to impact the United States.
Disaster Preparedness and Recovery Plan Version Sponsored by: Community Foundation Leadership Team (CFLT) Fiscal and Administrative Officers Group (FAOG). External Scenario 1 NUCLEAR DETONATION – KILOTON IMPROVISED NUCLEAR DEVICE INCIDENT PLANNING GUIDE Page 3 of 14 Does your hospital have a recovery plan and proc edures to prioritize system recovery activities, including repair and decontamination of the facility, communicating, educating and monitoring staff.
Incomplete RTOs and RPOs can quickly derail a disaster recovery plan. Every item in the DR plan requires a defined recovery point and time objective, as failure to create them may lead to significant problems that can extend the disaster’s impact.
Dec 07, · Create a recovery plan based on this scenario, which is specific to a nuclear attack. Address all of the necessary criteria for the Recovery Plan as it relates to this nuclear scenario. The Recovery Plan should contain the following criteria: 1.