Description Get other people to agree with you by appealing to their sense of morality and social good. Ask them whether things that you or they are proposing are right or wrong. Encourage them to do the 'right thing'. Talk about how they will affect other people, for better or worse.
Club drugs methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA], flunitrazepam, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate [GHB] Dissociative drugs ketamine, phencyclidine [PCP] and analogs, Salvia divinorum, and dextromethorphan Hallucinogens lysergic acid diethylamide [LSD], mescaline, and psilocybin Opioids heroin and opium Other compounds anabolic steroids and inhalants Prescription medications central nervous system depressants, stimulants, and opioid pain relievers Stimulants cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine Tobacco Data from National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Retrieved April 22, Ethical Rationale for Clinical Recommendations and Guidelines Related to Substance Use Disorder This Committee Opinion proposes an ethical rationale for routine screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for substance use disorder in obstetric and gynecologic practice.
Support for this protocol is derived from the following four basic principles of medical ethics: Beneficence Therapeutic intent, or beneficence, is the foundation of medical knowledge, training, and practice.
Positive behavior change arises from the trust implicit in the patient—physician relationship, the respect that patients have for physician knowledge, and the ability of physicians to help patients see the links between physiologic dysfunction and behavior and their physical and psychologic consequences.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that all patients be asked about alcohol and substance use regularly and in plain language 7. Routine screening for substance use disorder can be accomplished by way of validated questionnaires or conversations with patients.
Routine laboratory testing of biologic samples is not required.
There are several examples of evidence-based screening tools that can be used in the evaluation of alcohol and substance use disorder 4—7. It may be most efficient and effective to screen using a team approach, in which nonphysician members of the health care team are educated about screening and how to assist women who have positive screening results.
Obstetrician—gynecologists have an ethical responsibility to treat their patients with substance use disorder with dignity and respect and to try to establish a therapeutic alliance with these patients.
Obstetrician—gynecologists should familiarize themselves with resources available through their local hospital, community, or state in order to appropriately and effectively refer patients for treatment. The core ethical purpose of routine screening for substance use disorder is the beneficent provision of timely and effective care, rather than stigmatization or punishment.
Physicians who identify alcohol use disorder, for example, may offer their patients alternatives to their continued drinking, including stopping drinking, cutting down on use, and seeking help. Brief intervention by physicians or peer educators has been shown to be as effective as conventional treatment for alcohol and substance use disorder and can produce dramatic reductions in use, improved health status for the patient, and reduced costs to society 8— Nonmaleficence The obligation to prevent, or not to impose, harms nonmaleficenceincluding harms of omission, also is relevant to care for patients with substance use disorder.
Patients also may be harmed when substance use disorder is viewed as a moral failing rather than a medical issue Women with substance use disorder particularly are likely to be stigmatized and labeled as hopeless Humiliation as a tool to force change is ethically and professionally inappropriate, engenders resistance, and acts as a barrier to successful treatment and recovery As leaders of the health care team, it is important for physicians to model empathy and support rather than criticism when caring for patients with substance use disorder.
Justice The principle of justice in medicine governs equitable access to care, fair distribution of resources, and nondiscriminatory medical practices. This principle requires that routine screening for substance use disorder should be applied equally to all people, regardless of age, sex, race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status.
Physicians may fail to apply principles of universal routine screening. When women are less likely to be screened or referred for treatment for substance use disorder, their burden of disability is increased and health status decreased.
Another source of injustice is that punitive measures related to substance use disorder are not applied evenly across sex, race, and socioeconomic status. For example, in a landmark study among pregnant women who were anonymously tested for drug use, the prevalence of use was found to be similar between African American women and Caucasian women but African American women were 10 times more likely to be reported to law enforcement as a result of positive screening results Universal application of substance use disorder screening questions, brief intervention, and referral to treatment eliminates these disparities.
Justice also requires that preventive education and treatment referral should be provided for all patients in whom substance use disorder is identified. Just as with any chronic medical condition, physicians should counsel their patients with substance use disorder and refer them to an appropriate treatment resource when available, even if there might be a low likelihood of response to treatment.
Respect for Autonomy Respect for autonomy directs that patients have the right to full information about their health and health care and the power to make their own health care decisions. A climate of respect and trust within the patient—physician relationship promotes patient autonomy and enables effective intervention for women with substance use disorder by increasing motivation to change, supporting self-efficacy, and offering hope and resources 21 When a legal or medical obligation exists for obstetrician—gynecologists to test patients for substance use disorder, there is an ethical responsibility to notify patients of this testing and make a reasonable effort to obtain informed consent.
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Patients who fear sensitive information may be disclosed to others will be inhibited from honest reporting to their physicians If a patient has the capacity to make her own decisions and declines to discuss alcohol and substance use, the physician should respect her decision.
A significant ethical dilemma is created by state laws that require physicians to report the nonmedical use of controlled substances drugs or other chemicals that are potentially addictive or habit forming by a pregnant woman and laws that require toxicology tests of the woman, her newborn, or both after delivery when there is clinical suspicion for fetal exposure to potentially harmful controlled substances.
Such laws may unwittingly result in pregnant women concealing substance use from their obstetricians or even forgoing prenatal care entirely. State lawmakers are encouraged to look to science-based guidelines, medical evidence, and ethical principles to guide appropriate public health interventions.
Ethical Approach to Common Patient-Care Issues Related to Substance Use Disorder Obstetrician—gynecologists have a responsibility to respond in a medically and ethically appropriate manner, within legal requirements, to patient-care issues involving substance use disorder.
Cornerstones of an ethical approach to the management of substance use disorder include patient education and safe prescribing practices; care and advocacy for patients with substance use disorder who are parents, pregnant, or seeking pregnancy; and protection of patient autonomy, confidentiality, and the integrity of the patient—physician relationship to the extent allowable by law.
Patient Education Patient education is central to the prevention of intentional and unintentional therapeutic drug diversion, with a trusting relationship between physicians and their patients at the core of this education process. This relationship is especially vital when patients ask their physicians to prescribe medications that are not indicated.
In partnership with local pharmacies, physicians also should be a resource for their patients regarding proper use, storage, and disposal of medications 4. Safe Prescribing Practices When treating patients with acute or chronic pain, obstetrician—gynecologists have an ethical responsibility to follow current best prescribing practices for controlled medications in order to avoid inadequate or inappropriate treatment of pain and patient misuse or diversion ie, redistribution of prescription medications such as opioids.Marketing the media with sexuality and violence: Is it ethical?
Ahmet Bayraktar Rutgers University that the media institutions use sexuality and violence as a marketing instrument in order to attract satisfy men’s sexual desires. They are used as a marketing instrument mostly in advertisements.
Sexual Morality and the Concept of Using Another Person Essay. A+. Pages:3 Words This is just a sample. To get a unique essay. We will write a custom essay sample on Sexual Morality and the Concept of Using Another Person specifically for you Morality and Ethicality of Using Sexual Advertising ; A Change in Sexual Morality ;.
In most cases, students enjoy writing compare and contrast essay as it isn’t a boring activity as provides an opportunity to use the imagination. For those who like giving their opinions on everything, writing a compare and contrast essay is .
Abstract. This paper suggests a framework for determining the ethicality of disguised and obtrusive advertising. While most discussions of advertising ethics deal with deception or fraud, the proposed framework is based on the way messages are presented to audiences. Improving Fear Appeal Ethics, Page 1 Improving fear appeal ethics Kaylene C. Williams ethicality. However, attitudes toward advertising and its ethicality seem to be declining as a whole. The challenge is to create advertising communications that increase ad persuasiveness term morality is taken to mean judgments, standards and rules of. Nouns include “ethicality” and “ethicalness,” while an adverb comes in the word “ethically.” Celine. "Difference Between Legal and Ethical." initiativeblog.com Difference Between Sexual Harassment and Flirting; Follow Us.
Theorists of public morality—from the ancient Greek philosophers and Roman jurists on “sexual experience has dignity and beauty”—is the concrete interest of individuals and families who constitute “the public.” Think about the sexualization of adolescents in contemporary music, television, movies, and commercial advertising.
There is certainly a connection between morality (or morals) and ethics; dictionary definitions of one will usually reference the other.
However, an important distinction needs to be considered in the debate about morals and ethics: The basis for ethics must be morals, not the other way around. Ethical Issues in Crime Analysis Essay Ethical Issues in Crime Analysis Ethicality is defined in two interconnecting constructs: 1) a rule or habit or conduct with regard to right and wrong or a body of such rules and habits and 2) the moral quality of a course of action.